To use a computer on a network or the Internet, you are given an account. Associated with the account are a unique user name and password. You enter these to show that you are the legitimate user of the computer.
A address is a unique name (or number) identifying a computer user or computer. Addresses are used in network communications in transmitting messages to a particular person or machine.
A measurement of how much information can be transmitted at a given time over the Internet.
Bit is an abbreviation for binary digit. A bit is the smallest unit of data a computer can handle. Each "bit" has a value of 1 or 0 that the computer interprets as "on" or "off" respectively. For example, a byte is composed of 8 consecutive bits that make up one single character such as the letter "A".
Bits Per Second. Measurement of the speed at which data can be transmitted over a telephone, cable or network line.
An application that displays Web pages. Also known as a Web browser. A program that interprets and displays hypertext documents. Browsers also provide an easy way to travel around the Internet. Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Explorer are two popular browsers.
A byte is equal to either 7 or 8. A byte stores a single character of information such as the letter A.
Common Gateway Interface. CGI is an interface for running external programs, or gateways, under an information server. In non-technical terms, gateways are programs which handle information requests and return the appropriate document or generate a new document to satisfy the request. A CGI program, usually written in Perl, C++, or Java, can operate within your Web documents and handle things like finding out the current date, keeping statistics, counting how many people access your page, process forms, and more complicated things like running animations or making Web pages interactive.
Chat is real-time communication between two or more users via computer. Once a chat has been initiated, either user can enter text by typing on the keyboard and the entered text will appear on the other user's monitor. Chat "rooms" are often set up and divided by topic. Most networks and online services offer a chat feature.
Dial-up is a method of connecting one computer to another computer or network via a telephone connection. Dial-up refers to connecting a device to a network via a modem and a public telephone network. Dial-up access is really just like a phone connection, except that the parties at the two ends are computer devices rather than people. Because dial-up access uses normal telephone lines, the quality of the connection is not always good and data rates are limited. In the past, the maximum data rate with dial-up access was 28.8 Kbps (28,800 bits per second), but new technologies such as ISDN and Cable are providing faster rates.
Domain Name Service. DNS is an Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses. It acts rather like an Internet phone book. Because domain names are alphabetic, they're easier to remember. The Internet however, is really based on IP addresses. Every time you use a domain name, a DNS service must translate the name into the corresponding IP address. For example, the domain name www.example.com might translate to 18.104.22.168.
Domain Name :
People are good at using words and names, and computers can handle numbers. To make it easy for people to use the computers on the Internet, domain names were invented. For example, let's look at Yahoo!'s webpage. Either the IP address or Domain Name would work. Which would be easier for you to remember?
IP Address----------Domain Name
There are different levels of domain names:
Top level, fixed, describes a category of institution:
MIL: Military government
NET: Changeover paths
XX: Two letter country codes
Second level domains, usually represent a whole organization. The third level represents departments or subdivisions within an organization.
Electronic mail, e-mail is the transmission of electronic messages across computer networks. e-mail can be keystrokes, photos, complete documents, audio and video clips. e-mail is the most frequently used application on the Internet.
e-mail Address :
An e-mail address is a personal address where electronic mail is received. It is a combination of a username and a hostname. It appears like this: username@hostname
File Transfer Protocol. FTP is the Internet protocol that allows viewing, downloading, and uploading of files on remote computers. Most people use FTP to upload their websites to the Internet.
Approximately one billion bytes, or one thousand megabytes. (See also byte and megabyte).
A homepage is the gateway for any website on the Internet. It acts an introduction to a website. Homepages include the most important information about a company as well as navigation to the rest of the site.
Hypertext Markup Language HTML is a language to specify the structure of documents for retrieval across the Internet using the browser programs of the World Wide Web. HTML consists of two parts:
«Text - Actual text within a document
«Tags - The method of formatting webpage layouts on the Internet. SHTML (Secure HTML),
DHTML (Dynamic HTML), CFML (Cold Fusion ML) are all variations of HTML.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. The protocol that tells the server what to send to the client, so the client can view Web pages, FTP sites, or other areas of the net.
Internet Protocol. IP specifies the format of packets. Packets are one-way of transporting information over the Internet. IP also specifies how packets are addressed for delivery. Most networks combine IP with a higher-level protocol called Transport Control Protocol (TCP). TCP enables two host computers to establish a connection and exchange streams of data. TCP guarantees delivery of data and also guarantees that packets will be delivered in the same order in which they were sent.
IP Address :
The number that identifies your machine as unique on the Internet. Without it, you can not use any Internet protocols. These addresses are four numeric strings separated by dots (periods).
These numeric strings are used in different ways to identify a particular network and a host on that network. Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number - if a machine does not have an IP number, it is not really on the Internet. Most machines also have one or more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember.
Internet Service Provider. An ISP is an organization that provides access to the Internet, such as the ISP Channel. For a monthly fee, the service provider gives you a software package, username, password and access phone number. Equipped with a modem, you can then log on to the Internet, browse the World Wide Web, and send and receive e-mail. In addition to serving individuals, ISP's also serve large companies, providing a direct connection from company networks to the Internet. ISP's themselves are connected to one another through Network Access Points (NAPs).
A suffix meaning 1000 in the metric system and "about 1000" in computer usage (usually 1024). It is derived from Greek and should be lower case, though is often capitalized. For example, 8.6k characters means 8600 characters.
Kilobits Per Second. Kbps is a measure of data transfer speed. Modems, for example, are measured in Kbps. Note that one Kbps is 1,000 bits per second, whereas a KB (kilobyte) is 1,024 bytes.
Local-Area Network. A group of computers, usually in one building, that are physically connected in a way that lets them communicate and interact with each other.
An opening procedure to identify yourself to a system as a legitimate user and begin a session. To log in you usually need a valid user name and password that were pre-assigned by the system administrator of the system.
A closing procedure to formally end a session with a system.
Mail Server :
A computer that holds e-mail messages for clients on a network.
Megabit (a.k.a. MB)
When used to describe data transfer rates, it refers to one million bits (see also bits). Networks are often measured in megabits per second, abbreviated as Mbps.
A network is an interconnected or interrelated chain, group, system, or set of agencies that cooperate with each another. These machines are set up specifically for communications between one another.
The act of connecting a computer to the Internet via a modem or network. Once online, a user's computer can communicate with other computers logged onto the Internet.
Operating System :
The foundation software of a machine that schedules tasks, allocates memory, disk storage, and presents an interface to the user. For example, PC's typically use Windows 95/98. The Macintosh operating system is called the Finder (which produces the pull-down menus, mouse pointer.).
A protocol is a specification that describes how computers will talk to each other on a network.
POP: Post Office Protocol POP3 Server is the protocol for incoming mail.
Proxy Server :
A proxy server is a server that sits between a client application, such as a Web browser, and a real server. It intercepts all requests to the real server to see if it can fulfil the requests itself. If not, it forwards the request to the real server.
A dedicated computer (or other device) that sends packets from one place to another, sort of like a crossing guard.
Routing is the process of finding an effective and efficient path through a network to a destination computer. The network or communication software almost always handles routing.
A computer that shares its resources, such as printers and files, with other computers on the network but is used only to store and retrieve information.
Shell Account :
When you log into this kind of account, the computer you log into is connected to the Internet, but your computer isn't.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol A SMTP Server is the protocol for outgoing mail.
Static IP :
A Static IP address is a "fixed" IP address. What this means is that the IP address as well as the host name are recorded in the DNS tables. Each time you log in, you will have the same address.
Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Two protocols used are Internet Protocol (IP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). You'll often see these mentioned together as TCP/IP when dealing with the software needed to make an Internet connection. Data over the Internet is transferred in packets. The Internet protocol (IP) specifies the rules for moving packets from one site to another and another protocol, Transmission Control Protocol or TCP makes sure the packets have arrived and the message is complete. To make life easy, just think of TCP/IP as the language of the Internet.
The Internet standard protocol for providing connection to a remote computer (remote login). Telnet allows a user at one site to interact with a remote computer as if that user's terminal were directly connected to the remote site.
Upload (a.k.a Upstream) :
To transmit data from a computer to a bulletin board service, mainframe, or network. For example, if you use a personal computer to log on to a network and you want to send files across the network, you must upload the files from your PC to the network.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) :
Uniform Resource Locator. This is also known as the web site address Describes the location and access method of a resource on the Internet.
Username or ID :
A username is a name for logging into a system. A username is always accompanied by a password to grant some form of security.
Virtual Private Network :
refers to a network in which some of the parts are connected using the public Internet, but the data sent across the Internet is encrypted, so the entire network is "virtually" private. VPNs use the public Internet backbone and private data networks to replace costly leased line facilities. Industry experts estimate that VPNs typically reduce telecommuting costs by as much as 70% and branch office connections by 30%. VPNs incorporate tunneling, encryption, encapsulation, packet authentication, user authentication, access control and quality of service to insure the secure and timely delivery of your data.
A virus is a program or piece of code that is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes. A virus might be attached to a document that is e-mailed or downloaded from the Internet. Most viruses can replicate themselves. All computer viruses are manmade.
Wide-Area Network. A network spanning hundreds or thousands of miles.
A webpage is a document on the World Wide Web. Every webpage is identified by a unique URL (Uniform Resource Locator).
Web Space :
This is the actual space that contains the web page.